(A) Effect of single or double Matrigel overlays on cardiac differentiation using the protocol defined in Figure 3(A) with Activin A (100 ng/ml), BMP4 (10 ng/ml) and bFGF (5 ng/ml). Cardiogenesis efficiency was measured by flow cytometry for cTnT+ CMs at 15 days differentiation of the iPSC line DF19-9-11T. Control is the cell culture without Matrigel overlay. Error bars represent SD, N=9. (B) Cardiac differentiation of multiple hPSC lines assessed by flow cytometry for cTnT at 15 days differentiaton using the matrix sandwich protocol. Error bars represent SD, N=15 for IMR90 C4; N=15 for DF6-9-9T; N=13 for DF19-9-7T; N=21 for DF19-9-11T; N=24 for H1; N=16 for H9. Data were compared using one-way ANOVA with * indicating significantly different, P < 0.05.
(A) Co-labeling of the re-plated CMs from matrix sandwich culture after 30 days differentiation of iPSCs (DF19-9-11T) with MLC2a and MLC2v antibodies. Scale bar is 50 μm. (B) Dot plots of flow cytometry analysis of cells after 15 and 30 days differentiation of the iPSCs (DF19-9-11T) for expression of cardiac myofilament proteins cTnT, MLC2a and MLC2v. (C) Average of the percentage of cells expressing cTnT; MLC2a (without MLC2v); MLC2a and MLC2v; and MLC2v (without MLC2a) measured by flow cytometry at 15 and 30 days differentiation of the iPSCs (DF19-9-11T). Error bars represent SEM, N=3. Isotype controls were performed for each antibody combination used in the flow cytometry, data not shown.
(A) Representative sharp microelectrode recordings of nodal-, atrial-, and ventricular-like action potentials from CMs differentiated from the iPSCs (DF19-9-11T). Dotted line indicates 0 mV. Right, Single action potentials at an expanded timescale taken from traces on the left. (B) Comparison of action potential properties measured from CMs differentiated using the matrix sandwich protocol. Solid lines through distributions indicate population means. Data were compared using one-way ANOVA with # indicating significantly different from all other cell lines or from cell lines indicated, P < 0.05.
Abstract:Increases in adipocyte volume and tissue mass due to obesity can result in inflammation, further dysregulation in adipose tissue function, and eventually adipose tissue fibrosis. Like other fibrotic diseases, adipose tissue fibrosis is the accumulation and increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Adipose tissue fibrosis has been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity, poor bariatric surgery outcomes, and difficulty in weight loss. With the rising rates of obesity, it is important to create accurate models for adipose tissue fibrosis to gain mechanistic insights and develop targeted treatments. This article discusses recent research in modeling adipose tissue fibrosis using in vivo and in vitro (2D and 3D) methods with considerations for biomaterial selections. Additionally, this article outlines the importance of adipose tissue in treating other fibrotic diseases and methods used to detect and characterize adipose tissue fibrosis.Keywords: adipose tissue; fibrosis; in vitro models; in vivo models; biomaterials
Synchronized N2 wild-type or cisd-3.2(pnIs68) mutant, at the L4-to-adult hermaphrodite molt stage, were transferred to fresh NGM plates (time = 0). The N2 wild-type and cisd-3.2(pnIs68) mutant was scored daily for survivorship. The gravid hermaphrodites were transferred to a new plate every day. Non-gravid animals as they aged were transferred less frequently to minimize inducing injury. Animals were scored as dead if the worm failed to move after touching and was subsequently removed from the plate. The animals that crawled off the plate, bagged out, or showed uterine rupture were nulled. Three biological replicates were completed with a total of N = 50 animals for each experiment.
Global Hif1a deletion in mice is embryonically lethal due to severely defective vessel formation and neural tube closure (14). However, mice with endothelial-selective deletion of Hif1a are viable, and the adult mice demonstrate impaired angiogenesis that has been ascribed to reduced production of paracrine factors such as VEGF (15). Global Hif2a deletion also induces embryonic or perinatal lethality, which is associated with bradycardia (16), mitochondrial dysfunction (17), and defective lung and vascular development (18). However, mice developed normally after endothelial deletion of Hif2a but displayed aberrant endothelial cell (EC) ultrastructure, coupled with decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteins and increased microvessel leakiness (19). These findings suggest a key role for EC-expressed HIF2α in regulating EC homeostasis in general and the endothelial barrier function in particular.
Microvessel Kf,c measurements to determine alterations in permeability to liquid. Isolated mouse lungs were perfused in situ from the pulmonary artery with a peristaltic pump, excised, and placed on a force displacement transducer. The lung weight was electronically nulled, and the outflow pressure was then elevated gradually as indicated for 30 minutes. The weight gain was recorded, and the Kf,c (ml/min/cm H2O) was calculated from the slope of the weight gain and normalized to the dry lung weight (lungs were dried overnight at 60°C) (54).
A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.
In this paper, a novel approach of an optical type absolute rotary encoder coding pattern is presented. The concept is based on the principle of the absolute encoder to find out a unique sequence that ensures an unambiguous shaft position of any angular. We design a single-ring and a n-by-2 matrix absolute encoder coding pattern by using the variations of Hamiltonian graph principle. 12 encoding bits is used in the single-ring by a linear array CCD to achieve an 1080-position cycle encoding. Besides, a 2-by-2 matrix is used as an unit in the 2-track disk to achieve a 16-bits encoding pattern by using an area array CCD sensor (as a sample). Finally, a higher resolution can be gained by an electronic subdivision of the signals. Compared with the conventional gray or binary code pattern (for a 2n resolution), this new pattern has a higher resolution (2n*n) with less coding tracks, which means the new pattern can lead to a smaller encoder, which is essential in the industrial production.
Optical linear processors are computationally efficient computers for solving matrix-matrix and matrix-vector oriented problems. Optical system errors limit their dynamic range to 30-40 dB, which limits their accuray to 9-12 bits. Large problems, such as the finite element problem in structural mechanics (with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables) which can exploit the speed of optical processors, require the 32 bit accuracy obtainable from digital machines. To obtain this required 32 bit accuracy with an optical processor, the data can be digitally encoded, thereby reducing the dynamic range requirements of the optical system (i.e., decreasing the effect of optical errors on the data) while providing increased accuracy. This report describes a new digitally encoded optical linear algebra processor architecture for solving finite element and banded matrix-vector problems. A linear static plate bending case study is described which quantities the processor requirements. Multiplication by digital convolution is explained, and the digitally encoded optical processor architecture is advanced.
Digital data transmission over a noisy channel could distort the message being transmitted. The goal of coding theory is to ensure data integrity, that is, to find out if and where this noise has distorted the message and what the original message was. Data transmission consists of three stages: encoding, transmission, and decoding. Linear and Hamming codes are codes that we discussed in this work, where encoding algorithms are parity check and generator matrix, and decoding algorithms are nearest neighbor and syndrome. We aim to show that we can simulate these processes using SageMath software, which has built-in class of coding theory in general and linear codes in particular. First we consider the message as a binary vector of size k. This message then will be encoded to a vector with size n using given algorithms. And then a noisy channel with particular value of error probability will be created where the transmission will took place. The last task would be decoding, which will correct and revert the received message back to the original message whenever possible, that is, if the number of error occurred is smaller or equal to the correcting radius of the code. In this paper we will use two types of data for simulations, namely vector and text data.
A simple but effective technique for absolute colorimetric camera characterization is proposed. It offers a large dynamic range requiring just a single, off-the-shelf target and a commonly available controllable light source for the characterization. The characterization task is broken down in two modules, respectively devoted to absolute luminance estimation and to colorimetric characterization matrix estimation. The characterized camera can be effectively used as a tele-colorimeter, giving an absolute estimation of the XYZ data in cd=m2. The user is only required to vary the f - number of the camera lens or the exposure time t, to better exploit the sensor dynamic range. The estimated absolute tristimulus values closely match the values measured by a professional spectro-radiometer. 2b1af7f3a8